MUSLIM SELF-STATEMENT IN INDIA AND PAKISTAN (1857-1968) Aziz Ahmad and G. E. Von Grunebaum

MUSLIM SELF-STATEMENT IN INDIA AND PAKISTAN (1857-1968) Aziz Ahmad and G. E. Von Grunebaum Islamic conquest of India by the Arabs, the Turks and the Turko-Afghans, between the 8th and the 13th century was followed by the introduction and propagation of the mainstream of Islamic thought— theological, Sufi, and political, in India. The theological thought was mainly traditional until the eighteenth century when for the first time it faced a severe challenge, the loss of the political power and economic decline. The measure of originality in the theological and political thought of Muslim India is traceable mainly to the eighteenth century, when the problem of &Cadence had to be faced. Creative fundamentalism was followed by modernism with the establishment of the British power and its consolidation after 1858. This anthology indudes selections from significant literature and documents that hold a mirror to modem Islamic self-consciousness, self-statement, and self-definition in the Indo-Paldstan subcontinent The mirror reflects representative selections from the writings and ideas of Sayyid Ahmad Khan, Chiragh Ali, Muhammad Qasim Nanotawi, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, Mirza Bashir al-Din Mahmud, Siddiq Hasan Khan, Shibli Nu`mani, Khwaja Altaf Husayn Hali, Amir Ali, Mawlana Muhammad Ali, Abul Kalam Azad, Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad All Jinnah, Abu 1-Ma Mauducli, Ghulam Ahmad Parwez, Khalifa Abd al-Hakim, Selections from the Munir Report, A. A. A. Fyzee, Extracts from the Constitutions of Pakistan (1956 and 1962) and Islamic Clauses from the Constitution of Pakistan (First Amendment), Act of 1963.


Alexis Carrel / A. Crecy Morrison


Alexis Carrel, a French surgeon and biologist, recieved his Doctor’s degree from the University of Lyons in 1900. He then continued his medical work at the Lyons Hospital and also taught Anatomy and Operative Surgery at the University, holding the post of Prosecutor in the Department of Professor L. Testut. Specializing in Surgery, Carrel began experimental work in this subject in Lyons in 1902, but in 1904 he went to Chicago and in 1905 worked in the Department of Physiology in the University of Chicago under Professor G. N. Stewart. In 1906 he was attached to the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, New York, where he carried out most of his experiments. Using a small needle and very fine silk thread, Alexis Carrel developed the first successful technique for suturing blood vessels together. He then devised methods to prevent infection during surgery. For this work he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1912. He also performed some of the earliest blood transfusions between humans, and transplanted kidneys and legs between dogs.


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